Ari: It’s TIME. I made this episode about TIME because THIS is the 12th episode of At Your Level. Since it takes us a month to make an episode, that is a year! That’s a lot of.. time. You know what else it’s a lot of time for? The pandemic! Yup, my mom and I went microphone shopping the last weekend before all these stores in Boston closed...and my school closed - I haven’t stepped foot in my school for one whole year!!

*knock knock* oh shoot it’s the negative police, um um I mean this year was great! I started a podcast! I mean, definitely a good year. And I am not being sarcastic nope uh uh not at all.

So TIME… it’s doing funny things. But is it doing anything?

So in this episode we have a very special guest. He is not a kid, well, at least he’s not one at this point in time. He is a Tufts University Professor of Philosophy and he’ll help us make SOME sense of this whole time concept. We’ll also nerd out about it and meet our kid guests that were nice enough to share their thoughts about this mind boggling topic.

And when this episode ends, so will season one! And with that -

I’m your host Ari Kelly and this is At Your Level.

-trombone & tuba Intro-


Ari: For the last episode we made a pod about kids who pod. In this episode, we have a pod on this pod. Our five kid guests are in a pod together in their school in Michigan.

Isal: Hi, my name is Isla.

Zea: I'm Zea.

Claudia: My name is Claudia.

Audrey: Audrey.

Madrona: I am Penelope.

Ari: Penelope.

Zea: Of course your name is Penelope.

Ari: Yes. Madrona's name... ahhh, I mean, no one's name is Penelope.

Madrona: They all know my name, so it doesn't really matter.

Ari: Just to clarify, I told Madrona, and I’ll tell all of you who want to be on the show and are not sure if you want to use your real name, that you can use a pseudonym or alias - I mean if you’re a little shy, or your parents are not comfortable with you sharing your identity, you can give yourself any name you want, it doesn’t really matter.

Madrona: You know, I'm fine with you saying Madrona. Okay, fine. I just wanted to say that.

Ari: There's no time to waste, we need to know what time even means!

Claudia: Time is infinite. Kind of.

Audrey: I don’t think time is infinite because if we all die then who's keeping track of time.

Ari: Exactly. I know, but there's still time after the sun explodes.

Zea: Yeah. There is still time.

Ari: Madrona, please go.

Madrona: Um, I think time goes fast when you want it to go slow and it goes slow when you want it to go fast.

Claudia: True. Kind of.

Audrey: Mine's probably, what life is in, because everything is time.

Claudia: I think time is sort of like fuel. Um, you kind of need time to do everything. I guess.

Ari: We also have Oliver who submitted his definition of time on AtYourLevelPod.com

Oliver: I think time is another dimension, just like X, Y, and Z, but humans haven't figured out how to stop it or go backwards in it yet.

Ari: Here’s my definition, well, it’s not exactly a definition, but it’s how I see it.

Time, it is technically infinite, but somehow, each person has a different amount of time that’s not infinite at all.

I think, time is like a never ending circle. Every one of us starts off as a baby and grows to complete that circle, but that circle doesn’t stop when we die, it keeps on going and going and going and it won’t stop ever - there’s always going to be life.

By the way, everyone’s circle is a different size. We all have a limited amount of time, like, there's no specified age when everybody dies. So what I’m saying is no matter how much time you have, you can’t adjust the amount and when your time is up, it’s up! Which is why you have to use it wisely.

Ari: What do you think time is? How would you define it?

Ari: We have a very interesting guest for you all to meet.

Ari: Uh, can you please introduce yourself?

Prof. Azzouni: Ok. I’m Jody Azzouni. I teach at Tufts University.

Prof. Azzouni: I write. Should I keep going like this?

Ari: Oh yeah.

Prof. Azzouni: I write. I write Philosophy. I write fiction. I write poetry.

Prof. Azzouni: I publish a bit of it too.

Ari: Professor Azzouni is being a bit modest. He published a lot! His latest book is called "Attributing Knowledge: What it means to know something”. So If any of you are parents (whispery:I hope this show is fun for you too) and if you end up liking Professor Azzouni’s philosophy, maybe you’ll enjoy reading his books too.

Ari: So back to our big question: How would you define time?

Prof. Azzouni: Ok. Um. As soon as you sent me this question I started worrying about it. I’ve been worrying about it all along. So I’m hoping what I say to you, you’re not going to think I’m being evasive.

Ari: THIS. My dear listeners. Was my first clue. Brace yourself. We’re going in!

What/When you want to define something. Usually, the way to think about it - one way to think about it - Think about you dealing with someone who doesn’t have the concept… and/but has other concepts, and you’re gonna define it in terms of the other ones. So..Right? So If I’m gonna define a square for you, I’m going to assume that you have the idea of a side, and that you have the idea of an angle, and that you have the idea of a degree of an angel, and if you put those together, I can give you the definition of a square. Right?

So now let’s think about time, and I’m like, well, if I .. what would I start with? Would I start with motion? I could say ‘time is what things that are moving consume’, but in a way that’s a fake description, because really, you’re not going to get the idea of motion unless you already have the idea of time. And so what I want to say to you is… well, time is one of these fundamental concepts, and I really can’t give you a definition.

Ari: Got that?

Prof. Azzouni: What’s gonna make that sound a little weird is that I think our notion of time has changed. We all think it’s reasonable or possible that there could be time travel. There’s science fiction time travel. When you read Greek mythology, or folk mythology, African mythology, any mythology - there’s no time travel - nobody’s got a concept of it. We don’t get a concept of time travel until..

Ari: much later.

It’s a real question - how did our concept change that now we think time travel is a possibility and we didn’t then, before.

Ari: Hmm.

I’m going to give you TIME to let this sink in. Let’s get back to the girls with a fun question.


Ari: how would YOU fill in the blanks in this sentence?

When I __________, time _________.

Ari: Like when I read, time flies.

Madrona: When I’m doing school work, time slows to a halt!

Claudia: When I draw or paint, time feels faster I guess, I dunno..

Ari: Alright, now Zea

Zea: When I do arts and crafts, time flies.

Ari: Ok. And now back to Audrey

Audrey: I like writing a lot, so when I write, time goes, goes as fast as the speed of light, or sound.

Ari: You have now run out of time Isla, ha ha. Huh huh.

Isla: I’m really bored when I do chores.

Ari: Yes!

Ari: How would you complete this sentence?

See, when you do something, and it’s either really boring or really fun, do you feel like time is slower or faster? Now, what I mean by that is, say you were in a school zoom meeting and it’s really really boring, it feels like it will never end, right? But when you’re doing something fun like watching a good movie, curtains down, and POOF, it’s over. Another thing I thought about when I wrote this question was, I noticed that when I sleep, it feels like when you're in minecraft, you click on the bed and it’s morning! But sometimes when I try and fall asleep and can’t, I get frustrated, because time feels slow. So I read, and read, and READ. Because for me, reading makes me tired and I like it, so time goes by faster.

Prof. Azzouni: Time itself doesn't speed up or slow down. That's what we think. Um, or, you know, in relativity time does some strange things, but it has no connection to whether you're having fun or not. So that's a psychological fact and I'm going to tell you that it's similar to another psychological fact that's very strange. So let's say you have to walk up Hill and you're looking at a certain distance that you have to go. You'll actually experience that distance as longer if you're tired and shorter if you're not tired. So what's happening with time is similar - If you're having a good time, the time races by - that's your experience is different. The time isn't racing by any faster AND if you're hanging by your thumbs, which I hope is an experience, you never have, time will crawl. That will be the longest minute you've ever experienced. But if this is about experience, and this is about your brain, your brain handling and marking time differently.

-trombone transition-


Ari: By the way, do you want to be on the show? It really is for everybody! You can just record a voice memo on a phone and email me. If you want to know what questions I’ll be asking, join my mailing list, and don’t let the word ‘mailing list’ scare you! It’s just my mom sending out an email once a month with what recordings we need. And FYI - since so many of you voted for ‘video games’ as the topic for the next episode - that’s what it’s gonna be, so if you like video games and you want to be a guest, be quick about it.

Let’s get back to TIME: the healer and the killer!

-trombone transition-


Ari: Have you ever heard the expression “Oh she’s so young at heart!” or “He’s such an old soul”. What do YOU think you are? Do you prefer to be energetic or calm? Are you fun and up-beat or are you kind of a brainiac?

My grandma, or Safta as I call her, is young at heart because she acts like a child sometimes, she’s fun and cheerful. She also works her butt off for us, and doesn’t get tired.

But my brother Ben is an old soul. He loves listening, playing and knowing everything about music. This is true about food too. Another thing is that he likes being alone and doing grown up stuff.

I think I am more like my safta. I think when I’m her age, I’ll be full of life too.

What are you?

Audrey: I think that I'll be forever young because a lot of my personality is being happy and I just love being happy.

Madrona: Um, I think I'll be forever young cause I do not like chess. Yeah, and I do not have grandkids.

Ari: That is also true.

Madrona: And I don't like going on long, long, long zooms with my whole entire family.

Claudia: Um, I think I'll be forever young because, um, I hate relaxing and just not being productive.

Isla: Um, I think I'll be forever young because I'm very active and very silly.

Ari: Alright, Zea.. Do you.. I'm very much hoping that there's at least one old soul, so we have contrast, but maybe not, maybe not.

-cross talk-

Zea: Unless you can get other people to join.. I think I'll be forever young for literally the reasons of all the other people.

Ari: All right. Fair enough.

Audrey: I think we're all saying we're young because we actually are young and we're not old.

Ari: Exactly, but..

Zea: I know, it's like when you're older..

Madrona: I think, when I’m old, I’ll say “I’ll be forever young”.

Ari: Yeah. Like, think about what your grandparents do. Do they like doing relaxing activities?

Audrey: My grandpa builds houses, still.

Zea: My grandpa is interesting, he gardens and like, he also naps like half the day. So I don't know, he's in between.

Ari: My friend Lily who you met in episode 5 answered this question too:

Lily:I think I will be young forever because I always like to terrorize Ari.

-trombone transition-


Ari: It’s TIME for bizarre ASMR

So the last bizarre ASMR was, let’s just say, pretty easy. But I stepped it up, it is my TIME to shine!

Every mystery sound is based on that episode's topic. The last episode was about kids who podcast.

Get ready!

Here’s the sound:

-Episode 11 mystery sound-

(((This is Ari and if you’re reading this transcript, you might be hearing impared, so I don’t think you can guess the mystery sound, or at least I don’t know how you would. So how about a riddle instead? --

Penelope and Jason were born simultaneously but they have two different birthdays. How can this be? -- I put the answer at the very end of the transcript in the same triple parentheses )))

Ari: So let’s start off with Whenever Wherever Kids Podcast’s Seth and Mia

Mia: Listening to the noise it’s kinda like (*click click*)

Seth: The clicky noise?

Mia: Is it the “clicky noise”?

Ari: uh, It always has to do with the episode’s title. This is going to be kid podcasting.

Mia: Ooo

Seth: Kid podcasting.

Ari: What are things about podcasting that sound like that? (that is clicky clicky)

Mia: When you tap on the mic?

Seth: the volume buttons clicking

Ari:This is... (tap tap tap on the mic)

Mia: oh yeah that sounds cool. Yours sounds cool.

Seth: Ours just sounds annoying.

Ari: Ok I’m gonna play it one more time because I want you to notice how different it sounds in this (tap tap) heh heh

- Episode 11 mystery sound-

Mia: is it typing on a keyboard?

Seth: it’s editing.

Ari: YES! *clap clap*

Mia: You got it

Ari: You got it! You got it! You got it!

Mia: Seth was talking about how good he is at these things.

Ari: Now let’s go to our correspondent Leela from noosy jacuzzi

Leela: So, I think I’ve got it. Um, that kinda sounds like a computer, like um the keys clicking.

Ari: I feel like that’s so easy for people! Was it really easy?

Leela: Yeah! I guess so.

Ari: Seven year old Curious Kid Podcast’s Olivia got it too.

Ari: Did you hear it, did you hear it?

Olivia: All I heard was tapping.

Ari: Exactly. What do you think it was?

Olivia: You pressing the keyboard.

Ari: Now onto my guests for this episode, here are Madrona, Isla, Zea, Claudia and Audrey.
All in unison: Typing on a keyboard!

-Panicked voise- Ok. Wow. I guess that one was a little too easy.

It’s TIME to step up my game. Here it is, I hope it’s not too easy but not so difficult that you have no clue.. Here is this episode’s sound:

-Episode 12 mystery sound-

Ha ha. I bet you can’t get this one!

But if you actually think you got it, which is extremely unlikely, heh heh. You can go ahead to AtYourLevelpod.com and record your answer. Well that’s all for this bizarre ASMR. Now back to you, other Ari…

-trombone transition-


Ari: … Thanks, other Ari.

Are you guys ready for another way to think of time? Do you think you move through time or that time moves through you? What I mean by that is, say that you’re meeting a friend at noon and she has to reschedule to one hour earlier. Do you think she means you’ll get together at 11am or 1pm? Ask around, I bet you’ll be surprised to know that your answer is not everyone’s answer. Even though your answer is really obvious to you, the opposite could be opposite to them. I dare you to ask around if the correct answer is 11 or 1.

When I asked Professor Azzouni ‘do you think you move through time or time moves through you?” this is what he said:

Professor Azzouni: Well, I'm not sure I can. Um, because I wasn't sure the people who say time is moving through them, but I have two ways I can think about a person and time, and I'm just going to tell them to you and you can tell me if you think those are the ways you're talking about. One of them is we're here in total at every moment, me at the present moment and now, I wait a second, me at the present moment and that feels like me moving through time because it's me. It's me. It's me. It's me. Right?

Ari: Yeah.

Professor Azzouni: So that's one concept, but here's another one, we think about, we think about me. I'm sorry to use me. I could use you, but I'm going to use me.. and I think, Oh, I'm this long, ere's the image? Four dimensional word. What am I? Well, I have three dimensional. Uh, uh, dimensions, you know, I’m a certain height and a certain width and a certain... but I also have a temporal demention.. the moment I came to birth to the moment I sease, and that's me extending through the fourth dimension. So I have four dimensions, and now we can think of my, we can think about slicing me along the time dimension. So there are time slices of me.. and now we can think, it's starting to get a little weird or maybe it's a little weird already. Um, there's me at the present moment - that's time slice Jody now. And then there's time slice Jody, uh, a few minutes ago, and those time slices are kind of related to each other, intimately, because I remember all this stuff in the previous time slice and the previous time slice had expectations about me,Bbut we can think about those as different. Those are just I'm con.. I'm a bunch of connected time slices. And if we think about me that way, then, um, I don't know if that's time moving through me, but that's me being temporal objects over time, as opposed to me being one object moving through time. Does that make sense to you?

Ari: Yeah.

Cool. So those are two ideas. Those are two approaches to it. The one that I think is natural is me moving through time.

-trombone transition-


Ari: It’s nerd out time!

Hey, you, I’m gonna be honest with you.

I just wanted to make this episode about time because well, it’s been a full year for this podcast and I think that’s a lot of time! So I thought hey, why not make this episode ABOUT time! And oh boy what did I get myself into.

When my mom and I sat down to brainstorm, all sorts of stuff came up.. like philosophy!

That’s how we got to Prof. Azzouni.

I came up with questions to ask him so we could learn about time from the philosophy perspective.

So remember that fill in the blanks question about how time flies when you’re having fun? Or..

Madrona: When I’m doing schoolwork, time slows to a halt!

Professor Azzouni: So that's a psychological fact. So it’s not really a question about time, it’s a question about your brain. And you should, if you want, look up a psychologist, or a neurophysiologist, or a cognitive scientist. And pose that question to them.

So apparently you can look at time from all of these perspectives too.

Ari: Another thing that came up when I interviewed Professor Azzouni, is the idea of time being relative.

Now, do you even know what the word RELATIVE means?

It’s when something exists in comparison to something else, or in other words, in relation to something else.

I mean, two people can have different perspectives on the same thing… right?

Here’s my example: an orange can look tiny next to a watermelon but massive next to a grape!

The orange can be relatively big and relatively small at the same time!!!

But here’s the thing, if you google the word ‘time’ and the word ‘relative’

You get “The theory of relativity”

Now THAT is some extremely complicated stuff.

The man behind The Theory of Relativity is none other than Albert Einstein.

Here’s a question for you.. You’ve heard the name Albert Einstein, right? What comes to mind when you hear that name?

I think of that one picture when he has his tongue out?

So in 1905 that crazy haired scientist figured out a few things about time that no one else ever has. It’s called the ‘Theory of relativity’. Which is a scientific explanation about how time is relative to space.

That the motion of one thing is always relative to the motion of everything else.

And that the speed of light is the speed limit for the universe.

He had figured out that no material object can ever travel as fast as light.

This is just scratching the surface of Einstein's “Theory of relativity”. To be honest it kinda made my brain hurt this nerd out, but if this is the stuff you find interesting, then you like Physics.

Are you keepin tabs? We’ve hit philosophy, psychology, physics,

How else can we explore this episode’s topic?

So, I looked into clocks... well, cause time!

And there really isn’t a defined TIME when that even happened.

It looks like the invention of the clock was more of an evolution - like sundial to obelisk to clock tower to digital wrist watch.

It’s like what Prof. Azzouni was saying about time travel. The idea didn’t even occur to people in ancient cultures. Humans had to get to the concept of technology first in order to even imagine it. So before we could come up with the idea of building a clock, we had to understand a few concepts. Like that there’s 24 hours in a day and well, gears?!

If you want to learn more about the evolution of the clock, visit thoughtco.com

Finally, in conclusion, this topic I picked, is well, deep!

We can nerd out about it for … eternity?

Like Oliver pointed out at the beginning of the show.. It’s not even just a concept, it’s a dimension!

I’m out.

-trombone transition-


Are you liking the show? I mean, since you’ve made it this far in the episode, I would assume so. So if you do, can you do me a solid and give me a nice review? Or a 5 star review - It’ll really help me out. It’ll also help other kids find it.

Onto Bad Dad.

-trombone transition-


Liam: Hey Ari

Ari: Ooo. it’s TIME, Bad Dad time! Old timer time.

Liam: Yeh yeh. You love it!

Liam: Why did the clock get sent to the principal’s office?

Ari: Yikes! Why?

Liam: It was tocking too much.

Ari: Oh dad!

Liam: What did the watch say to the clock?

Liam: Hour you doing?

Ari: No. no- you crossed the line father.

Liam: No? Ok, you like animals, what do you get when you cross a clock and a chicken?

Ari: hmm

Liam: A cluck

Ari: cricket noise

Liam: What dog always knows the time?

Ari: Oh, I can figure this one out… a watch dog.

Liam: Yes! But do you know what time it was when the elephant sat on the clock?

Liam: Time to get a new clock.

Ari: (chuckles) I actually like that one.

Liam: I got three more

Liam: Why didn’t the clock work?

Ari: let me think about this one..

Liam: It needed a hand.

Ari: gah!

Liam: What did the second hand say to the hour hand as it passed by?

Ari: What WOULD the second hand say to the hour hand as it passes by? Hmm.

Liam: See you again in a minute.

Ari: Ok Dad, this is a lot of cringe.

Liam: Ready for the last one?

Liam: What happens when you annoy a clock?

Ari: This better be funny

Liam: It gets ticked off.

-sad trombone transition-


Ari: Do you think we’ve got the time for one more?

What about memory? How is our memory related to time?

There’s lots to think about there, so let’s make it fun. I asked my guests:

What is your earliest memory that you can remember? How old were you? And what was the memory?

Zea: I usually have so many random memories. I have random memories pop of my head all the time, but now I can't think of any.

Ari: Isla you can go down.

Isla: Um, when I got potty trained.

Zea: You remember that?

Ari: How do you remember that?

Isla: I don’t know.

Claudia: I think when I was like four or five, um, it was on Easter or somewhere around Easter and we got chocolate and my mom gave me and my brother a small piece and I really wanted more, so I stole it, and I went into my bed and then when my parents came in, I said, I thought it was a carrot.. and it was such a bad lie.. and..I don’t know why I have a memory of that, but um, yeah.

Zea: I went to California (I have family in California), so I went to California and I saw elephant seals, I was either two or five, I was probably five.

Audrey: I went on a cruise ship when I was like six, it was my first cruise ship (or seven). And then we got to this Island, and then we went scuba diving on the Island, and then there's like, it was kind of closed off, but very far. We swam in that and there was a shark, but I didn't really see it. I was scared. I was so little,

Ari: I still have a phobia of the ocean. I'm so scared of the ocean.

Claudia: I am too. My earliest memory is pretty weird, it is when my mom was... we were at the gas station and she was gassing her gold car. It was a tiny gold car. Yeah.

Ari: Wow.

Claudia: Yeah.

Ari: All right. Madrona, you are the last one remaining.

Madrona: Um, I think I was either like one or two or a few months old. I remember one time waking up from a nap. And then I remember a different time. I was working on a dot-to-dot sheet.

Zea: How do you remember that? Sometimes it's hard to think of.. like decipher between like, memories and, um, like photos that you've seen.

Isla: Um, some people, um, my parents tell me what happened when I was like a month old.

Madrona: Oh. And I remember making a picture of a football and all of these three memories are in the same exact spot.

Ari: Okay.

Madrona: It was a weird daycare thing.

-trombone transition-


I also have a very special thank you to share -

You, see, there’s this amazing podcaster - the one, the only - Eric O’Keefe. Many of you know him as Mr. Eric.

Well, this month, I got to be the luckiest kid in the World and BE on What If World… (in Ed voice:) as my favorite character’s little brother, Ed.

I hope you listened, I hope you loved it, and I wonder if you heard this bonus bit at the end? .. roll the clip!

Mr. Eric: Until we meet again, keep wondering.


Ari: Wahhhhh, I don’t know.

Mr. Eric: That’s great!

Ari: Giggling. Exactly.

Mr. Eric: No that’s great, that’s great.

Mr. Eric: I want you to.. I want to challenge you to.. you know, back up from your mic and do an even weirder version of that.

Ari: Wahhhhh

(both chuckle)

Mr. Eric: Alright, could I get one more take, just for safety, can I get one more take? I want you to stay backed off your mic and up your volume by about 10% so you cn embarrass yourself in front of your home.

Ari: Ahh Jeez

Ari (backed away from mic): Everybody, close your ears or somethin, I don’t know.

Mr. Eric: chuckles

Ari: Wahhhhha ahaaaa ahaaaaaa!

Mr. Eric: (chuckling) Perfect, perfect. Thank you.Thank you.

Ari: And my family members lost 100% of their respect for me.

Mr. Eric: Ahhh, it’s ok, they’ll get it back once they hear this awesome episode.

Ari: Yeahhh


Mr. Eric: What would you th….What would you three do withou.. (chuckles)..sorry I can’t get it out.. You’re gonna love/hate it. (chuckles).Oh no...

Ari: Wait wat, now I’m really curious,

Mr. Eric: No, it’s not that good.. Ah.. What would you three do without me..eow!

Ari: (cringing) mmmm

Mr. Eric: (laughing)

Ari: That belongs in Bad Dad… (Eric still laughing) and technically, it could, because you are a dad now.

I’ll give you the out take of that awful joke, so if you wanna use it...

Ari: So Mr. Eric, if you are listening right now, thank you so much for helping me out so much. It was really nice of you to be on my podcast and let me on your podcast. And also to all of you listeners, Mr. Eric works so hard and so, you know how you give your teacher a flower on teacher appreciation day and they end up with a big bouquet of flowers? Well Mr. Eric has a Patreon, so if you love What If World as much as I do, maybe you can give him that one little flower?

If you do, you’ll get tons of perks, like these bonus bloopers you just heard.

And this is just a small fraction of what you can get.

Go to Patreon.com/whatifworld

-trombone transition-

Ari: Because yet another way to look at time, is that it is our gift to give. Here are the people who gave me their time in this episode:

Professor Azzouni - Thank you so much for your wonderful explanations, for being on my show AND for sending us your book. My mom is talking about it all the time - it’s just her sort of thing.

To Madrona, Zea, Audrey, Isla and Claudia for being such superb and brilliant guests.

And to Oliver and Lily for your sound bites!!

To my doda Michali for hooking me up!!

To that fab dad and his bad gab.

To my brother Ben who composed and recorded all the music you’ve heard. He started working on cleaning it up and adding trombone bits for season 2!

To my mom, the list of what you do is too long, so I’ll just say ‘I love you’.

And again, to my guide, my friend and favorite podcaster - Mr. Eric.

And you - I would like to thank YOU for your TIME!

I know you can do lots of things with your time and I’m honored that you chose to spend it with me.

And with that, I am Ari Kelly and At Your Level is a production of Art and Light Society.

-trombone & tuba OUTRO-

(((The answer to the riddle is that they were born in the same moment, but in different places, so the time zones were far enough apart that it was a different date)))